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Let’s begin with some interesting diamond facts:

  • Every diamond is immensely old, formed long before dinosaurs roamed the earth. The youngest diamond would be 900 million years old, and the oldest up to 3.2 billion years old.
  • Every diamond is unique; no two are alike.
  • The very word "diamond" comes from the Greek term ‘adamas’ meaning unconquerable.
  • Diamonds exist in many colours, the rarest of all being red.
  • Diamonds were first mined in India more than 2,800 years ago.
  • Each stone loses, on average, more than half of its original weight during cutting and polishing.
  • The word "carat" comes from the carob tree, whose seeds were used as the standard of weighing precious stones.
  • Less than 5% of all the diamonds made into jewellery are larger than one carat.

More Importantly:

A diamond’s beauty, rarity, and price all depends on the interplay of all the well-known 4 C’s: Carat, Clarity, Colour& Cut.

CARAT - Refers to the weight of a diamond.

Carat is often confused with size even though it is actually a measure of weight. One carat is equivalent to 200 milligrams. One carat can also be divided into 100 "points".
A 0.75 carat diamond is the same as 75-points or a 3/4 carat diamond.
Does a 1.00 carat diamond cost exactly twice the price of a half-carat diamond? No! Since larger diamonds are found less frequently in nature, this places them at a rarer level; a 1-carat diamond will cost more than twice a 1/2-carat diamond (assuming colour, clarity and cut remain constant).
Cut and mounting can make a diamond appear larger (or smaller) than its actual weight. So shop around and talk to your jeweller to find the right diamond and setting to optimise the beauty for your stone.

CLARITY - Refers to the presence of inclusions in a diamond.

Every diamond is unique. Nature ensures that each diamond is as individual as the person who wears it. Naturally occurring features, known as inclusions, provide a special fingerprint within each stone. Inclusions are natural identifying characteristics such as minerals or fractures, appearing while diamonds are formed in the earth. They may look like tiny crystals, clouds or feathers.
The position of inclusions can affect the value of a diamond. There are very few flawless diamonds found in nature, and therefore these diamonds are the most valuable. Inclusions are ranked on a scale of perfection, known as clarity, which was established by the Gemmological Institute of America (GIA). The clarity scale, ranging from F (Flawless) to Included (I), is based on the visibility of inclusions at a magnification of 10x.

The greater a diamond’s clarity - the more brilliant, valuable, and rare it is.
COLOUR - Refers to the degree of which a diamond is colourless.

Diamonds are found in almost every colour of the rainbow, but white-coloured diamonds remain most popular.
Diamonds are graded on a colour scale established by the Gemmological Institute of America (GIA) which ranges from D (colourless) to Z.
Colour differences are very subtle and it can be difficult to see the differences between 2 colour grades. Therefore, colours are graded under controlled lighting conditions and are compared to a master set for accuracy.
Truly colourless stones are graded D and are treasured for their rarity. However, colour preference ultimately depends on personal taste and budget. Ask a jeweller to show you a variety of colour grades next to one another in order to help you determine your preference.
Nature has also created diamonds with intense shades of blue, green, yellow, orange, pink or - rarest of all - red. These diamonds are called 'fancy colours' and are extremely rare and highly treasured.

CUT - Refers to the angles and proportions of a diamond.

Nature determines so much about a diamond, but it takes a master cutter to reveal the stone's true brilliance, fire and ultimate beauty.
Based on scientific formulas, a well-cut diamond will internally reflect light from one mirror-like facet to another and disperse and reflect it through the top of the stone. This results in a display of brilliance and fire. Diamonds that are cut too deep or too shallow lose or leak light through the side or bottom, resulting in less brilliance and ultimately, in less value.
Cut also refers to shape - round, square, pear, or heart for example. Since a round diamond is symmetrical and capable of reflecting nearly all the light that enters, it is the most brilliant of all diamond shapes and follows specific proportional guidelines. Non-round shapes, also known as "fancy shapes", will have their own guidelines to be considered well-cut.